AAD – The American Academy of Dermatology is the main professional association for dermatologists in the USA.
AATCC – American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists is a technical and scientific society devoted to the advancement of textile chemistry. AATCC developed a standard test method to evaluate the level of sun protection provided by fabrics.
Antibiotics – Antibiotics are a class of drugs used to treat a broad range of infections and diseases. Many antibiotics, such as Cipro, Doryx, Floxin, Minocin, Tequin and Tetracycline increase the need for sun protection because they can significantly increase sun sensitivity.
Antidepressants – Antidepressants are a group of drugs, such as Elavil and Pamelor, that are used to treat depression but may also increase the need for sun protection because they can significantly increase sun sensitivity.
ASTM – American Society for Testing and Materials is an organization that develops technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services. ASTM developed standards for preparing fabrics for UV testing and for labeling garments based on UV test results.
Avobenzone – Also called Parsol 1789, avobenzone is a chemical absorber used in sunscreen to provide additional protection against UVA.
Basal Cell Carcinoma – This is a common form of skin cancer with almost 1 million cases each year in America. Treatment includes a procedure to remove the cancer, typically by cutting out the affected area or treating with a topical chemotherapy. If left untreated, the cancer will continue to grow. Individuals who have been diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma need sun protection to minimize UV exposure.
Cataracts – A cataract is a clouding within the lens of the eye making images look blurred or fuzzy. Sun protection for the eye is important for people who have cataracts and who are at risk of developing cataracts – such as aging baby boomers.
Diuretics – Diuretics are a group of drugs that help remove water from the body, such as Lasix. While they are helpful in a number of disorders, such as high blood pressure, they may also increase the need for sun protection because they can significantly increase sun sensitivity
EPA – The Environmental Protection Agency is the federal agency in the USA that is concerned with human health and the environment including environmental radiation such as ultraviolet radiation. The EPA publishes the UV Index in America in conjunction with the National Weather Service.
FDA – The Food and Drug Administration is the federal agency that regulates drugs in America including sunscreen. The FDA developed the SPF program to provide consumers information about the level of sun protection provided by sunscreens.
Lupus – Lupus is a chronic autoimmune disease. For people with lupus, exposure to the sun can cause skin lesions as well as flares of internal disease including joint pains and fatigue. In addition, many lupus medications significantly increase sun sensitivity. Sun protection is important for individuals suffering from lupus.
Macular Degeneration – This is an eye disease that involves permanent loss of vision due to destruction of cells in the center of the retina. Sun protection for the eye is important for people who have macular degeneration or who have an increased risk of developing macular degeneration.
Melanoma – A very serious form of skin cancer that kills almost 10,000 Americans each year. Individuals diagnosed with melanoma or with an increased risk of developing melanoma need sun protection to minimize UV exposure.
Micronized Zinc – A powdered metal that is used is sunscreen as a physical barrier to provide additional protection against UVA.
Parsol 1789 – Also called avobenzone, Parsol 1789 is a chemical absorber used in sunscreen to provide additional protection against UVA.
Retinoids – Retinoids are a class of drugs, such as Accutane, Differin, Retin A and Tazorac, that are often used to treat acne and also increase the need for sun protection because they significantly increase sun sensitivity.
Skin Cancer – There are 3 main types of skin cancer: basal cell carcinoma which is diagnosed most frequently, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Individuals who have developed skin cancer or who have an increased risk of developing skin cancer need sun protection to minimize UV exposure.
Skin Type – This is a classification scheme developed in 1975 by Fitzpatrick and Pathak based on how easily skin reddens and how easily skin tans. Originally designed to help determine drug dosage levels for treating psorasis, it is now more broadly used by physicians such as dermatologists to describe an individuals susceptibility to a range of disorders e.g. when assessing an individuals propensity to develop skin cancer.
SPF – Sun Protection Factor – A rating system developed by the FDA to describe the level of sun protection provided by a sunscreen. For example, when correctly used an SPF 30 will protect against 29 out of 30 parts of UVB. So when an SPF 30 sunscreen is used correctly, an individual could stay in the sun 30 times as long as without the sunscreen and develop the same reddening of the skin.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma – This is a form of skin cancer that affects almost 200,000 Americans each year. If left untreated, the cancer will continue to grow and can become life threatening. Individuals diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma or who have a heightened risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma need sun protection to minimize UV exposure.
Sun Protective Clothing – Specialty apparel that is designed to protect the wearer from exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet radiation. Sun protective clothing protects against both UVA and UVB and is rated using a UPF number.
Sunburn – Sunburn is an acute cutaneous inflammatory reaction that follows excessive exposure of the skin to ultraviolet radiation, primarily UVB.
Sunscreen – An “over the counter” pharmaceutical product designed to help protect consumers from exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet radiation.
Titanium Dioxide – A powdered metal that is used is sunscreen as a physical barrier to provide additional protection against UVA.
Ultraviolet Radiation – A portion of the electromagnetic spectrum generated by the sun. Ultraviolet radiation has wavelengths between 100 nm and 400 nm and sits between X rays and visible light in the electromagnetic spectrum. Commonly abbreviated to UV or UVR, it is now officially listed as a known human carcinogen (cancer causing agent) by the US government.
UPF – Ultraviolet Protection Factor. This is a rating system developed by the AATCC to describe the level of protection provided by fabrics used in clothing, hats, swimwear, umbrellas, canopies, etc. For example, a UPF 30 will protect against 29 out of 30 parts of UVA and UVB.
UV Index – This is a prediction of the peak UV level tomorrow. It is published by the EPA and NWS and is designed to be used like a weather forecast – to allow people to plan appropriately for the next day.
Zinc Oxide – A powdered metal that is used in sunscreen as a physical barrier to provide additional protection against UVA.